Fossil fuel phase-out
|Part of a series about|
Fossil fuel phase-out is the gradual reduction of the use of fossil fuels to zero. It is part of the ongoing renewable energy transition. Current efforts in fossil fuel phase-out involve replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy sources in sectors such as transport, and heating. Crude oil and natural gas are also being phased out in chemical processes (i.e. production of new building blocks for plastics, ...) as the circular economy and biobased economy (i.e. bioplastics, ...) is being developed.
Types of fossil fuels
Coal use peaked in 2013 but to meet the Paris Agreement target of keeping global warming to well below 2 °C (3.6 °F) coal use needs to halve from 2020 to 2030. However as of 2017[update], coal supplied over a quarter of the world's primary energy and about 40% of the greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Phasing out coal has short-term health and environmental benefits which exceed the costs, and without it the 2 °C target in the Paris Agreement cannot be met; but some countries still favor coal, and there is much disagreement about how quickly it should be phased out.
As of 2018[update], 30 countries and many sub-national governments and businesses had become members of the Powering Past Coal Alliance, each making a declaration to advance the transition away from unabated coal power generation. As of 2019[update], however, the countries which use the most coal have not joined, and some countries continue to build and finance new coal-fired power stations. A just transition from coal is supported by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Crude oil is refined into fuel oil, diesel and gasoline. The refined products are primarily for transportation by conventional cars, trucks, trains, planes and ships. Popular alternatives are human-powered transport, public transport, electric vehicles, and biofuels.
Crude oil is also refined into many other products (i.e. alkenes, lubricants, (paraffin) wax, sulfur, bulk tar, asphalt, petroleum coke, aromatic petrochemicals).
Asphalt for instance is a liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, which is used for road construction. Regular concrete can be used as an alternative.
Natural gas is widely used to generate electricity and has an emission intensity of about 500g/kWh. Heating is also a major source of carbon dioxide emissions. Leaks are also a large source of atmospheric methane.
In some countries natural gas is being used as a temporary "bridge fuel" to replace coal, in turn to be replaced by renewable sources or a hydrogen economy. However this "bridge fuel" may significantly extend the use of fossil fuel or strand assets, such as gas-fired power plants built in the 2020s, as the average plant life is 35 years. Although natural gas assets are likely to be stranded later than oil and coal assets, perhaps not until 2050, some investors are concerned by reputational risk.
Natural gas phase-out is progressing in some regions, for example with increasing use of hydrogen by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG) and changes to building regulations to reduce the use of gas heating.
Natural gas is also cracked into ethane and used as a base material for producing plastics (most of which are non-biodegradable).
The reasons for phasing out fossil fuels are:
- the health risks associated with air pollution
- mitigation of global warming,
- and the falling cost of renewable energy.
Most of the millions of premature deaths from air pollution are due to fossil fuels. Pollution may be indoors e.g. from heating and cooking, or outdoors from vehicle exhaust. One estimate is that the proportion is 65% and the number 3.5 million each year. According to Professor Sir Andy Haines at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine the health benefits of phasing out fossil fuels measured in money (estimated by economists using the value of life for each country) are substantially more than the cost of achieving the 2 degree C goal of the Paris Agreement.
Global warming mitigation
More recently, Hansen has stated that continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity's ability to avoid dangerous climate change. The letter, co-authored with other climate change experts declared "If we stay on the current path," he said, "those are the consequences we'll be leaving to our children. The best candidate to avoid that is nuclear power. It's ready now. We need to take advantage of it." and "Continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity's ability to avoid dangerous climate change."
Also in 2008, Pushker Kharecha and James Hansen published a peer-reviewed scientific study analyzing the effect of a coal phase-out on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Their baseline mitigation scenario was a phaseout of global coal emissions by 2050. The authors describe the scenario as follows:
The second scenario, labeled Coal Phase-out, is meant to approximate a situation in which developed countries freeze their CO2 emissions from coal by 2012 and a decade later developing countries similarly halt increases in coal emissions. Between 2025 and 2050 it is assumed that both developed and developing countries will linearly phase out emissions of CO2 from coal usage. Thus in Coal Phase-out we have global CO2 emissions from coal increasing 2% per year until 2012, 1% per year growth of coal emissions between 2013 and 2022, flat coal emissions for 2023–2025, and finally a linear decrease to zero CO2 emissions from coal in 2050. These rates refer to emissions to the atmosphere and do not constrain consumption of coal, provided the CO2 is captured and sequestered. Oil and gas emissions are assumed to be the same as in the BAU [business as usual] scenario.
Kharecha and Hansen also consider three other mitigation scenarios, all with the same coal phase-out schedule but each making different assumptions about the size of oil and gas reserves and the speed at which they are depleted. Under the Business as Usual scenario, atmospheric CO2 peaks at 563 parts per million (ppm) in the year 2100. Under the four coal phase-out scenarios, atmospheric CO2 peaks at 422-446 ppm between 2045 and 2060 and declines thereafter. The key implications of the study are as follows: a phase-out of coal emissions is the most important remedy for mitigating human-induced global warming; actions should be taken toward limiting or stretching out the use of conventional oil and gas; and strict emissions-based constraints are needed for future use of unconventional fossil fuels such as methane hydrates and tar sands.
The impulse of renewable energy can create jobs through the construction of new power plants and the manufacturing of the equipment that they need, as could be seen in the case of Germany and the wind power industry.
Studies about fossil fuel phase-out
In December 2015, Greenpeace and Climate Action Network Europe released a report highlighting the need for an active phase-out of coal-fired generation across Europe. Their analysis derived from a database of 280 coal plants and included emissions data from official EU registries.
A September 2016 report by Oil Change International, concludes that the carbon emissions embedded in the coal, oil, and gas in currently working mines and fields, assuming that these run to the end of their working lifetimes, will take the world to just beyond the 2 °C limit contained in the 2015 Paris Agreement and even further from the 1.5 °C goal. The report observes that "one of the most powerful climate policy levers is also the simplest: stop digging for more fossil fuels".:5
In October 2016, the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and 11 other NGOs released a report on the impact of building new coal-fired power plants in countries where a significant proportion of the population lacks access to electricity. The report concludes that, on the whole, building coal-fired power plants does little to help the poor and may make them poorer. Moreover, wind and solar generation are beginning to challenge coal on cost.
A 2018 study in Nature Energy, suggests that 10 countries in Europe could completely phase out coal-fired electricity generation with their current infrastructure, whilst the United States and Russia could phase out at least 30%.
The GeGaLo index of geopolitical gains and losses assesses how the geopolitical position of 156 countries may change if the world fully transitions to renewable energy resources. Former fossil fuel exporters are expected to lose power, while the positions of former fossil fuel importers and countries rich in renewable energy resources is expected to strengthen.
Challenges of fossil fuel phase-out
The phase-out of fossil fuels involves many challenges, and one of them is the reliance that currently the world has on them. In 2014, fossil fuels provided 81.1% of the primary energy consumption of the world, with approximately 465 exajoules (11,109 megatonnes of oil equivalent). This number is composed by 179 EJ (4,287 Mtoe) of oil consumption; 164 EJ (3,918 Mtoe) of coal consumption, and 122 EJ (2,904 Mtoe) of natural gas consumption.
Fossil fuel phase-out can lead to an increment in electricity prices, because of the new investments needed to replace their share in the electricity mix with alternative energy sources. Another cause to increasing electricity price comes from the need to import the electricity that can't be generated nationally.
Another impact of a phase-out of fossil fuels is in the employment. In the case of employments in the fossil fuel industry, a phase-out is logically undesired, therefore, people in the industry will usually oppose any measures that put their industries under scrutiny. Endre Tvinnereim and Elisabeth Ivarsflaten studied the relationship between employment in the fossil fuel industry with the support to climate change policies. They proposed that one opportunity for displaced drilling employments in the fossil fuel industry could be in the geothermal energy industry. This was suggested as a result of their conclusion: people and companies in the fossil fuel industry will likely oppose measures that endanger their employments, unless they have other stronger alternatives. This can be extrapolated to political interests, that can push against the phase-out of fossil fuels initiative. One example is how the vote of United States Congress members is related to the preeminence of fossil fuel industries in their respective states.
Major initiatives and legislation to phase out fossil fuels
On 8 June 2015, several newspapers ran an article wrote that the leaders of the Group of Seven (or G7, consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) agreed to phase-out fossil fuel use by 2100, as part of the efforts to keep global temperature increase under 2 °C. This was done as a prelude for the United Nations Climate Change Conference (a.k.a. COP 21) hosted in Paris, on December of the same year.
At the end of 2019, the European Union launched its European Green Deal. It included:
- a revision of the Energy Taxation Directive which is looking closely at fossil fuel subsidies and tax exemptions (aviation, shipping)
- a circular economy action plan,
- a review and possible revision (where needed) of the all relevant climate-related policy instruments, including the Emissions Trading System
- a sustainable and smart mobility strategy
- potential carbon tariffs for countries that don't curtail their greenhouse gas pollution at the same rate. The mechanism to achieve this is called the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM).
It also leans on leans on Horizon Europe, to play a pivotal role in leveraging national public and private investments. Through partnerships with industry and member States, it will support research and innovation on transport technologies, including batteries, clean hydrogen, low-carbon steel making, circular bio-based sectors and the built environment.
Legislation and initiatives to phase out coal
Phase-out of fossil fuel power plants
Alternative energy refers to any source of energy that can substitute the role of fossil fuels. Renewable energy, or energy that is harnessed from renewable sources, is an alternative energy. However, alternative energy can refer to non renewable sources as well, like nuclear energy. Between the alternative sources of energy are: solar energy, hydroelectricity, marine energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biofuels, ethanol and Hydrogen.
Energy efficiency is complementary to the use of alternative energy sources, when phasing-out fossil fuels.
Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. As of 2014[update], 19% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 9% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, 1% from biofuels, 4% from hydroelectricity and 4% from biomass, geothermal or solar heat. Popular renewables (wind, solar, geothermal and biomass for power) accounted for another 1.4% and are growing rapidly. While renewable energy supplies are growing and have displaced coal in some regions, the amount of coal burned in 2021, is expected to be the same as it was in 2014.
In 2015, hydroelectric energy generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. In Europe and North America environmental concerns around land flooded by large reservoirs ended 30 years of dam construction in the 1990s. Since then large dams and reservoirs continue to be built in countries like China, Brazil and India. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity and small hydro have become popular alternatives to conventional dams that may create reservoirs in environmentally sensitive areas.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.
Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in the United States and China. The Gansu Wind Farm in China has over 5,000 MW installed with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020. China has several other "wind power bases" of similar size. The Alta Wind Energy Center in California, United States is the largest onshore wind farm outside of China, with a capacity of 1020 MW of power. As of February 2012, the Walney Wind Farm in the United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 367 MW, followed by Thanet Offshore Wind Project (300 MW), also in the United Kingdom. As of February 2012, the Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm in Romania is the largest onshore wind farm in Europe at 600 MW.
There are many large wind farms under construction and these include Sinus Holding Wind Farm (700 MW), Anholt Offshore Wind Farm (400 MW), BARD Offshore 1 (400 MW), Clyde Wind Farm (350 MW), Greater Gabbard wind farm (500 MW), Lincs Wind Farm (270 MW), London Array (1000 MW), Lower Snake River Wind Project (343 MW), Macarthur Wind Farm (420 MW), Shepherds Flat Wind Farm (845 MW), and Sheringham Shoal (317 MW).
In 2017, solar power provided 1.7% of total worldwide electricity production, growing at 35% per annum. By 2020 the solar contribution to global final energy consumption is expected to exceed 1%.
Solar photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity and many solar photovoltaic power stations have been built. The size of these stations has increased progressively over the last decade with frequent new capacity records. Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use innovative tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than conventional fixed-mounted systems. Solar power plants have no fuel costs or emissions during operation.
Concentrated solar power
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists; the most developed are the parabolic trough, the concentrating linear fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. Various techniques are used to track the Sun and focus light. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage.
Biofuels, in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market. However, many of the biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use.
Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials. As a renewable energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly – once or converted into another type of energy product such as biofuel. Biomass can be converted to energy in three ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion.
Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural gas in some cases (such as with indoor heating and cooking). Utilization of wood biomass as a fuel can also produce fewer particulate and other pollutants than open burning as seen in wildfires or direct heat applications. Black carbon – a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass – is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming.:56–57 In 2009 a Swedish study of the giant brown haze that periodically covers large areas in South Asia determined that it had been principally produced by biomass burning, and to a lesser extent by fossil fuel burning. Denmark has increased the use of biomass and garbage, and decreased the use of coal.
The 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report identifies nuclear energy as one of the technologies that can provide electricity with less than 5% of the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal power. There are more than 60 nuclear reactors shown as under construction in the list of Nuclear power by country with China leading at 23. Globally, more nuclear power reactors have closed than opened in recent years but overall capacity has increased. China has stated its plans to double nuclear generation by 2030. India also plans to greatly increase its nuclear power.
Several countries have enacted laws to cease construction on new nuclear power stations. Several European countries have debated nuclear phase-outs and others have completely shut down some reactors. Three nuclear accidents have influenced the slowdown of nuclear power: the 1979 Three Mile Island accident in the United States, the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in the USSR, and the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Germany has permanently shut down eight of its 17 reactors and pledged to close the rest by the end of 2022. Italy voted overwhelmingly to keep their country non-nuclear. Switzerland and Spain have banned the construction of new reactors. Japan's prime minister has called for a dramatic reduction in Japan's reliance on nuclear power. Taiwan's president did the same. Shinzō Abe, prime minister of Japan since December 2012, announced a plan to restart some of the 54 Japanese nuclear power plants and to continue some nuclear reactors under construction.
As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Norway have no nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear power. Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland are phasing-out their nuclear power.
Moving away from fossil fuels will require changes not only in the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used, and reducing the amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is essential. Opportunities for improvement on the demand side of the energy equation are as rich and diverse as those on the supply side, and often offer significant economic benefits.
A sustainable energy economy requires commitments to both renewables and efficiency. Renewable energy and energy efficiency are said to be the "twin pillars" of sustainable energy policy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy has explained that both resources must be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions:
Efficiency is essential to slowing the energy demand growth so that rising clean energy supplies can make deep cuts in fossil fuel use. If energy use grows too fast, renewable energy development will chase a receding target. Likewise, unless clean energy supplies come online rapidly, slowing demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions; reducing the carbon content of energy sources is also needed.
The IEA has stated that renewable energy and energy efficiency policies are complementary tools for the development of a sustainable energy future, and should be developed together instead of being developed in isolation.
Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles
Many countries and cities have introduced bans on the sales of new internal combustion engine vehicles, requiring all new cars to be electric vehicles or otherwise powered by clean, non-emitting sources. Such bans include the United Kingdom by 2035 and Norway by 2025. Many transit authorities are working to purchase only electric buses while also restricting use of ICE vehicles in the city center to limit air pollution. Many US states have a zero-emissions vehicle mandate, incrementally requiring a certain percent of cars sold to be electric.
This section needs to be updated.May 2019)(
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Those corporations that continue to invest in new fossil fuel exploration, new fossil fuel exploitation, are really in flagrant breach of their fiduciary duty because the science is abundantly clear that this is something we can no longer do.— Christiana Figueres, executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
In October 2007, Civil Society Institute released the results of a poll of 1,003 US citizens conducted by Opinion Research Corporation.
The authors of the poll reported: "75 percent of Americans—including 65 percent of Republicans, 83 percent of Democrats and 76 percent of Independents—would 'support a five-year moratorium on new coal-fired power plants in the United States if there was stepped-up investment in clean, safe renewable energy—such as wind and solar—and improved home energy-efficiency standards.' Women (80 percent) were more likely than men (70 percent) to support this idea. Support also was higher among college graduates (78 percent) than among those who did not graduate from high school (68 percent)."
The exact question posed by the survey was as follows: "More than half of power plant-generated electricity comes from coal. Experts say that power plants are responsible for about 40 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide pollution linked to global warming. There are plans to build more than 150 new coal-fired power plants over the next several years. Would you support a five-year moratorium on new coal-fired power plants in the United States if there was stepped-up investment in clean, safe and renewable energy—such as wind and solar—and improved home energy-efficiency standards? Would you say definitely yes, probably yes, probably no, definitely no, or don't know."
The results were as follows:
- 30% "definitely yes"
- 45% "probably yes"
- 13% "probably no"
- 8% "definitely no"
- 4% "don't know"
In 2013, the Gallup organization determined that 41% of Americans wanted less emphasis placed on coal energy, versus 31% who wanted more. Large majorities wanted more emphasis placed on solar (76%), wind (71%), and natural gas (65%).
ABC News/Washington Post
A 2009 ABC/Washington Post poll found 52% of Americans favored more coal mining (33% strongly favored), while 45% opposed (27% strongly opposed). The most support was for wind and solar, which were favored by 91% (79% strongly favored).
CLEAN call to action
In October 2007, fifteen groups led by Citizens Lead for Energy Action Now (CLEAN) called for a five-year moratorium on new coal-fired power plants, with no exception for plants sequestering carbon. The groups included Save Our Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee); Ohio Valley Environmental Council (West Virginia); Cook Inlet Keeper (Alaska); Christians for the Mountains (West Virginia); Coal River Mountain Watch (West Virginia); Kentuckians for the Commonwealth (Kentucky); Civil Society Institute (Massachusetts); Clean Power Now (Massachusetts); Indigenous Environmental Network (Minnesota); Castle Mountain Coalition (Alaska); Citizens Action Coalition (Indiana); Appalachian Center for the Economy & the Environment (West Virginia); Appalachian Voices (NC); and Rhode Island Wind Alliance (Rhode Island).
Environmental Defense Fund
The US-based Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) has taken a stand in favor of natural gas production and hydraulic fracturing, while pressing for stricter environmental controls on gas drilling, as a feasible way to replace coal. The organization has funded studies jointly with the petroleum industry on the environmental effects of natural gas production. The organization sees natural gas as a way to quickly replace coal, and that natural gas in time will be replaced by renewable energy. The policy has been criticized by some environmentalists.
Other groups supporting a coal moratorium
- Co-op America
- Energy Action Coalition
- Kansas Sierra Club
- Lead for Energy Action Now (CLEAN)
- Rainforest Action Network
- Rising Tide Australia
- Sierra Club
- Step It Up 2007
Prominent individuals supporting a coal moratorium
If you're a young person looking at the future of this planet and looking at what is being done right now, and not done, I believe we have reached the stage where it is time for civil disobedience to prevent the construction of new coal plants that do not have carbon capture and sequestration.
Prominent individuals supporting a coal phase-out
- Eric Schmidt, CEO of Google, called for replacing all fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy in twenty years.
- Carbon bubble
- Clear Skies Act of 2003 (United States)
- Eco-economic decoupling
- Electricity generation
- Energy policy
- Environmental impact of the coal industry
- Fossil fuel divestment
- COVID-19 pandemic's effect on the fossil fuel industry
- Georgia Power
- Green growth
- Green recovery
- Measures taken to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
- Negative externalities
- New Source Review
- Nuclear power phase-out
- POLES, an energy model
- Renewable energy commercialisation
- Repurposing offshore drilling rigs for storing carbon
- Thorium-based nuclear power
- Torrefaction, of biomass, for a coal-like replacement
- EU's circular economy action plan released in 2020 A.D.
- "Electric Power Monthly - Table 1.1. Net Generation by Energy Source". US Energy Information Administration. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- "Coal Information Overview 2019" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
peak production in 2013
- "Analysis: Why coal use must plummet this decade to keep global warming below 1.5C". Carbon Brief. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "Statistics". www.iea.org. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "China's unbridled export of coal power imperils climate goals". Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "Coal exit benefits outweigh its costs — PIK Research Portal". www.pik-potsdam.de. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "The Production Gap Executive Summary" (PDF).
- "In coal we trust: Australian voters back PM Morrison's faith in fossil fuel". Reuters. 19 May 2019.
- Rockström, Johan; et al. (2017). "A roadmap for rapid decarbonization" (PDF). Science. 355 (6331): 1269–1271. Bibcode:2017Sci...355.1269R. doi:10.1126/science.aah3443. PMID 28336628. S2CID 36453591.
- "Time for China to Stop Bankrolling Coal". The Diplomat. 29 April 2019.
- "Powering Past Coal Alliance members list". Poweringpastcoal.org. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "Powering Past Coal Alliance declaration". Poweringpastcoal.org. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "The EBRD's just transition initiative". European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
- "UN Secretary-General calls for end to new coal plants after 2020". Business Green. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Clean Vehicles". Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "Natural Gas as a Bridge Fuel : Measuring the Bridge" (PDF). Energycenter.org. 2016.
- "Stranded assets are an increasing risk for investors". Raconteur. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Simon, Frédéric (27 March 2019). "Gas network chief: 'By 2050, we assume CO2 emissions from energy will be zero'". euractiv.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "Preparing Dutch homes for a natural gas-free future". European Climate Foundation. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017". Irena.org.
- editor, Damian Carrington Environment (12 March 2019). "Air pollution deaths are double previous estimates, finds research". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 12 March 2019.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Ramanathan, V.; Haines, A.; Burnett, R. T.; Pozzer, A.; Klingmüller, K.; Lelieveld, J. (9 April 2019). "Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (15): 7192–7197. Bibcode:2019PNAS..116.7192L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1819989116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6462052. PMID 30910976.
- "Rapid global switch to renewable energy estimated to save millions of lives annually". LSHTM. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- "Letters to the editor". The Economist. 9 May 2019. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
- Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Beerling, David; Berner, Robert; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Pagani, Mark; Raymo, Maureen; Royer, Dana L; Zachos, James C (31 October 2008). "Target atmospheric CO
2: Where should humanity aim?" (PDF). The Open Atmospheric Science Journal. 2 (1): 217–231. arXiv:0804.1126. Bibcode:2008OASJ....2..217H. doi:10.2174/1874282300802010217. S2CID 14890013. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- "Top climate change scientists issue open letter to policy influencers - CNN.com". CNN. 3 November 2013.
- Kharecha, P.A.; J.E. Hansen (2008). "Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate". Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 22 (3): GB3012. arXiv:0704.2782. Bibcode:2008GBioC..22.3012K. doi:10.1029/2007GB003142. S2CID 53557160.
- Heinrichs, Heidi Ursula; Schumann, Diana; Vögele, Stefan; Biß, Klaus Hendrik; Shamon, Hawal; Markewitz, Peter; Többen, Johannes; Gillessen, Bastian; Gotzens, Fabian (1 May 2017). "Integrated assessment of a phase-out of coal-fired power plants in Germany". Energy. 126: 285–305. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.03.017.
- "Energy Revolution". Greenpeace International. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Science news and science jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist". Environment.newscientist.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Jones, Dave; Gutmann, Kathrin (December 2015). End of an era: why every European country needs a coal phase-out plan (PDF). London, UK and Brussels, Belgium: Greenpeace and Climate Action Network Europe. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Mathiesen, Karl (23 September 2016). "Existing coal, oil and gas fields will blow carbon budget – study". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Turnbull, David (22 September 2016). "Fossil Fuel Expansion Has Reached the Sky's Limit: Report" (Press release). Washington DC, US: Oil Change International. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Muttitt, Greg (September 2016). The sky's limit: why the Paris climate goals require a managed decline of fossil fuel production (PDF). Washington DC, US: Oil Change International. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Nuccitelli, Dana (31 October 2016). "Coal doesn't help the poor; it makes them poorer". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, James Ryan; Wykes, Sarah; Doig, Alison (October 2016). "Beyond coal: scaling up clean energy to fight global poverty". Overseas Development Institute (ODI). London, United Kingdom. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, James Ryan; Wykes, Sarah; Doig, Alison (October 2016). Beyond coal: Scaling up clean energy to fight global poverty — Position paper (PDF). London, United Kingdom: Overseas Development Institute (ODI). Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Wilson, IAG; Staffell, I (2018). "Rapid fuel switching from coal to natural gas through effective carbon pricing" (PDF). Nature Energy. 3 (5): 365–372. Bibcode:2018NatEn...3..365W. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0109-0. S2CID 169652126.
- Overland, Indra; Bazilian, Morgan; Ilimbek Uulu, Talgat; Vakulchuk, Roman; Westphal, Kirsten (2019). "The GeGaLo index: Geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition". Energy Strategy Reviews. 26: 100406. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2019.100406.
- "Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2016.
- Green, R; Staffell, I (2016). "Electricity in Europe: exiting fossil fuels?" (PDF). Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 32 (2): 282–303. doi:10.1093/oxrep/grw003.
- Yilmaz, H. Ü.; Bchini, Q.; Keles, D.; Hartel, R.; Fichtner, W.; Mikulić, M.; Jakšić, D. (2016). "Impacts of a UK and German coal phase-out on the electricity mix and CO 2 emissions in Europe" (PDF). Insight Energy.
- Tvinnereim, Endre; Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (1 September 2016). "Fossil fuels, employment, and support for climate policies". Energy Policy. 96: 364–371. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.05.052.
- Cragg, Michael I.; Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin; Kahn, Matthew E. (1 April 2013). "Carbon Geography: The Political Economy of Congressional Support for Legislation Intended to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Production" (PDF). Economic Inquiry. 51 (2): 1640–1650. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00462.x. S2CID 8804524. SSRN 2225690.
- Connolly, Kate (8 June 2015). "G7 leaders agree to phase out fossil fuel use by end of century". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Clark, Pilita; Wagstyl, Stefan (8 June 2015). "G7 leaders agree to phase out fossil fuels". Financial Times.
- A new circular economy action plan
- COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS
- "Statistical Review of World Energy - Energy economics - Home". Bp.com. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "pg18" (PDF). Ren21.net. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "page 18" (PDF). Ren21.net. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Terra-Gen Press Release Archived 2 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 17 April 2012
- "The Largest Wind Farm in Europe Goes Into Trial Operation" (Press release). CEZ Group.
- "Denmark breaks its own world record in wind energy". EURACTIV.com.
- "New record-breaking year for Danish wind power". Energinet.dk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016.
- Wittrup, Sanne. "Dong: Vores kraftværker bruger allerede billig vindmøllestrøm i elpatroner" Ingeniøren, 15 January 2015. Retrieved: January 2015.
- Blarke, Morten Boje. "Liste over el-drevne varmepumper i fjernvarmen Archived 19 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine" SmartVarme.dk, 12 February 2014. Retrieved: January 2015.
- Capion, Karsten. "Analyse nr. 9 - Mulighederne for den fremtidige fjernvarmeproduktion i decentrale områder Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine" Danish Energy, 15 January 2014. Retrieved: 15 January 2015.
- Blarke, Morten Boje. "Store eldrevne varmepumper[permanent dead link]" Aalborg University, 17 April 2013. Retrieved: January 2015.
- "BP Global: Solar energy". Bp.com.
- "pg 27 & 28" (PDF). Ren21.net. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Cartlidge, Edwin (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science. 334 (6058): 922–924. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..922C. doi:10.1126/science.334.6058.922. PMID 22096185.
- Martin and Goswami (2005), p. 45
- The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects and challenges, ISBN 978-0-85403-662-2, p. 61.
- Gordon Quaiattini. Biofuels are part of the solution Canada.com, 25 April 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- Biomass Energy Center Archived 8 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Biomassenergycentre.org.uk. Retrieved on 28 February 2012.
- Eartha Jane Melzer (26 January 2010). "Proposed biomass plant: Better than coal?". The Michigan Messenger. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012.
- Zhang, J.; Smith, K. R. (2007). "Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (6): 848–855. doi:10.1289/ehp.9479. PMC 1892127. PMID 17589590.
- "Announcement". Archives of Virology. 130 (1–2): 225. 1993. doi:10.1007/BF01319012.
- Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett (2011). "Emission Reductions from Woody Biomass Waste for Energy as an Alternative to Open Burning". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 61 (1): 63–68. doi:10.3155/1047-3222.214.171.124. PMID 21305889.
- Starke, Linda (2009). State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World: a WorldWatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. WW Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0-393-33418-0.
- Gustafsson, O.; Krusa, M.; Zencak, Z.; Sheesley, R. J.; Granat, L.; Engstrom, E.; Praveen, P. S.; Rao, P. S. P.; et al. (2009). "Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?". Science. 323 (5913): 495–8. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..495G. doi:10.1126/science.1164857. PMID 19164746. S2CID 44712883.
- Klimaråd: Affaldsimport vil belaste dansk CO2-regnskab Archived 28 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine 27 November 2015.
- Danish energy statistics, 2014 Archived 21 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine page 5 and 12
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Difference Engine: The nuke that might have been". The Economist. 11 November 2013.
- Breidthardt, Annika (30 May 2011). "German government wants nuclear exit by 2022 at latest". Reuters.
- "Italy Nuclear Referendum Results". 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012.
- Sokolski, Henry (28 November 2011). "Nuclear Power Goes Rogue". Newsweek.
- Inajima, Tsuyoshi & Okada, Yuji (28 October 2011). "Nuclear Promotion Dropped in Japan Energy Policy After Fukushima". Bloomberg.
- "Nuclear power: When the steam clears". The Economist. 24 March 2011.
- Fertl, Duroyan (5 June 2011). "Germany: Nuclear power to be phased out by 2022". Green Left.
- Erika Simpson and Ian Fairlie, Dealing with nuclear waste is so difficult that phasing out nuclear power would be the best option, Lfpress, 26 February 2016.
- Kanter, James (25 May 2011). "Switzerland Decides on Nuclear Phase-Out". The New York Times.
- InterAcademy Council (2007). Lighting the way: Toward a sustainable energy future Archived 28 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (2007). The Twin Pillars of Sustainable Energy: Synergies between Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology and Policy Report E074.
- International Energy Agency (2007). Global Best Practice in Renewable Energy Policy Making Archived 3 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Burch, Isabella (September 2018). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF). Climateprotection.org.
- "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017.
- Asthana, Anushka; Taylor, Matthew (25 July 2017). "Britain to ban sale of all diesel and petrol cars and vans from 2040". The Guardian.
- Cited in Tim Flannery, Atmosphere of Hope. Solutions to the Climate Crisis, Penguin Books, 2015, pages 123-124 (ISBN 9780141981048).
- Opinion Research Corporation, A Post Fossil-Fuel America Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Executive Summary, National Opinion Survey Produced for Citizens Lead for Energy Action Now (CLEAN), A Project of the Civil Society Institute, 18 October 2007
- Opinion Research Corporation, A Post Fossil-Fuel America Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, National Opinion Survey Produced for Citizens Lead for Energy Action Now (CLEAN), A Project of the Civil Society Institute, page 18, 18 October 2007
- Gallup, Americans want more emphasis on solar, wind, natural gas, 27 March 2013.
- ABC News/Washington Post, Energy policy has initial support, 28 August 2009.
- CLEAN press release Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 18 October 2007.
- EDF, Natural gas policy Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 4 October 2013.
- EDF, Why natural gas is important, accessed 4 October 2013.
- Larry Bernstein, Environmental Defense Fund scolded by other green organizations on ‘fracking’ Archived 9 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, 22 May 2013.
- "Solutions: Get Off Coal; Invest in Renewable Energy". 1sky.org.
- "Green America Climate Action: Dirty Energy: Coal is Bad". Coopamerica.org. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Citizens Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Rising Tide - Your Eyes on Climate Change". risingtide.org.au. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007.
- "Sierra Club Home Page: Explore, Enjoy, and Protect the Planet". Sierra Club.
- "Six Degrees - Coal and Climate Change". sixdegrees.org.au. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Nichols, Michelle (24 September 2008). "Gore urges civil disobedience to stop coal plants". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Google CEO ERic Schmidt offers energy plan," San Jose Mercury News, 9 September 2008
- "BBC News - Sci/Tech - US greens say coal must go". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Big Shift: Campaign to end to public financing of fossil fuels
- "Global Fossil Infrastructure Tracker"