Exclusive economic zone
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.
Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.
A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea). Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.
The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.
Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).
It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.
The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.
- Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute. The agreement was signed in Murmansk on 15 September 2010.
- The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
- Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union.
- A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves.
- France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.
- Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK.
- Turkey claims a portion of Cyprus's EEZ based on Turkey's definition that no islands, including Cyprus, can have full EEZ and should only be entitled to a 12 nautical mile reduced EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey and every other country are entitled to, including an area to the south of Cyprus containing an offshore gas field. Furthermore, the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which was created as result of the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus, also claims portions of Cypriot EEZ. The Republic of Cyprus, intergovernmental organizations and other countries, such the European Union, the United States, Russia, Israel, Switzerland, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Armenia do not acknowledge the Turkish claims on Cyprus's land and sea, and urge Turkey to restrain itself from illegal drilling for gas in the island's EEZ.[a] Furthermore, EU has threatened Turkey with economic and political sanctions for violating the Cypriot EEZ.
- Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ.
- The Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland occurred periodically over many decades, until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976.
- In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen and Eritrea should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.
- In 2009, in a dispute between Romania and Ukraine over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.
Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control. Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.
Algeria in 17 April 2018 establishes an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018. The permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations in 27 July 2018 declares his disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the Government of Spain hereby indicates its willingness to enter into negotiations with the Government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones, The same was done by the Italian mission in 28 November 2018. The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.
25 November 2018 The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explains that the Algerian Government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian Government wishes to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution
Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state. To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.
The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ. Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory, but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.
|Heard and McDonald Islands||410,722|
|Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands||6,048,681|
|Australian Antarctic Territory||2,000,000[note 1]|
Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.
|Fernando de Noronha||363 362|
|St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago||413 636|
|Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl.||468 599|
In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.
Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters. The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.
|Region||EEZ Area (km2)||Land area||Total|
|Desventuradas||449 836||5||449 841|
|Easter||720 412||164||720 576|
|Juan Fernandez||502 524||100||502 624|
The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.
The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country. Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.
|Region||EEZ & TW Area (km2)||Land area||Total|
|Denmark||105 989||42 506||149 083|
|Faroe Islands||260 995||1 399||262 394|
Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.
According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company. "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".
|Mainland India and Lakshadweep||1,641,514 km2|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||663,629 km2|
India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.
Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian archipelago. It has the 3rd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.
In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.
Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores.
|Pacific Ocean (Japan)||1,162,334|
|Sea of Japan||630,721|
|Sea of Okhotsk||235|
Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.
Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.
Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world. This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.
New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi), which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan. The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders. The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.
In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area. The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.
In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped. The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia. Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.
In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.
|Region||EEZ & TW Area (km2)||Land area||Total|
|Svalbard||402 574||61 002||463 576|
|Jan Mayen||273 118||373||273 491|
|Bouvet Island||436 004||49||436 053|
Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:
Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009, resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.
Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
- Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
- St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
- Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
- Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
- Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
- Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
- Total – 8,095,881 km2
- 825,052 km2
- Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
- Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2
Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2
The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.
The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.
|Territory||EEZ Area (km2)||EEZ Area (sq mi)||Notes|
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||1,449,532||559,667||disputed with Argentina|
|United Kingdom||773,676||298,718||includes the Isle of Man and Rockall|
|Tristan da Cunha archipelago†||754,720||291,400|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||638,568||246,552||disputed with Mauritius|
|Falkland Islands||550,872||212,693||disputed with Argentina|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||154,068||59,486|
|British Virgin Islands||80,117||30,933|
|Channel Islands||11,658||4,501||includes Guernsey and Jersey|
|Gibraltar||426||164||disputed with Spain|
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia||0||0||No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island belong to the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus respectively|
† A part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.
|Territory||EEZ Area (km2)||EEZ Area (sq mi)||Notes|
|Alaska||3,770,021||1,455,613||a non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent|
|Hawaii – Northwestern Islands||1,579,538||609,863||including Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain|
|U.S. East Coast||915,763||353,578||the mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States|
|Hawaii – Southeastern Islands||895,346||345,695||these islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain|
|U.S. West Coast||825,549||318,746||the mainland coastal states of the Western United States|
|Northern Mariana Islands||749,268||289,294||an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.|
|Mainland Gulf Coast||707,832||273,295||the mainland coastal states of the Southern United States|
|Johnston Atoll||442,635||170,902||a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
|Howland and Baker Islands||434,921||167,924||including Howland Island and Baker Island, both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
|Wake Island||407,241||157,237||a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
|American Samoa||404,391||156,136||the only inhabited unorganized unincorporated territory of the U.S.|
|Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef||352,300||136,000||both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
|Jarvis Island||316,665||122,265||a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
|Guam||221,504||85,523||an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.|
|Puerto Rico||177,685||68,605||an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||33,744||13,029||an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.|
|Navassa Island||N/A[note 2]||N/A[note 2]||a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands|
Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.
Rankings by area
This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.
|Rank||Country||EEZ km2||Shelf km2||EEZ+TIA km2|
|14||Federated States of Micronesia||2,996,419||19,403||2,997,121|
|16||Papua New Guinea||2,402,288||191,256||2,865,128|
|–||Cook Islands (NZ)||1,960,027||1,213||1,960,264|
|89||São Tomé and Príncipe||131,397||1,902||132,361|
|99||Antigua and Barbuda||110,089||4,128||110,531|
|107||Trinidad and Tobago||74,199||25,284||79,329|
|113||United Arab Emirates||58,218||57,474||141,818|
|117||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||36,302||1,561||36,691|
|122||Republic of the Congo||31,017||7,982||373,017|
|140||Saint Kitts and Nevis||9,974||653||10,235|
|145||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1,606||1,593||2,346,464|
|152||Bosnia and Herzegovina||50||50||51,259|
|–||Central African Republic||622,984|
- Air defense identification zone
- Continental shelf
- International waters
- R v Marshall
- Special economic zone
- Territorial waters
- The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
|a.||^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.|
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- Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf Archived 18 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Retrieved 3 July 2011
- Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
- "PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" at Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- EEZ area of the Republic of Cyprus
- EEZ area of Northern Cyprus
- Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- EEZ area of Haiti
- EEZ area of Jamaica
- MARITIME CLAIMS – Navassa Island
- Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentina reaches 6,581,500 km².
- EEZ area of North Korea (Yellow Sea)
- EEZ area of North Korea (Sea of Japan)
- Shelf area of North Korea (Yellow Sea)
- Shelf area of North Korea (Sea of Japan)
- FAO Country Profiles: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- Suk Kyoon Kim (2017). Maritime Disputes in Northeast Asia: Regional Challenges and Cooperation. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-34422-8.
- Kotch, John Barry; Abbey, Michael (2003). "Ending naval clashes on the Northern Limit Line and the quest for a West Sea peace regime" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 27 (2): 175–204. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Prescott, John Robert Victor; Schofield, Clive H. (2001). Furness, Shelagh (ed.). "Undelimited Maritime Boundaries of the Asian Rim in the Pacific Ocean". Maritime Briefing. Durham: International Boundaries Research Unit, University of Durham. 3 (1). ISBN 978-1-897643-43-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Van Dyke, Jon M. (2009). "Disputes Over Islands and Maritime Boundaries in East Asia". In Seoung Yong Hong, Jon M.; Van Dyke (eds.). Maritime Boundary Disputes, Settlement Processes, and the Law of the Sea. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 39–76. ISBN 978-90-04-17343-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Exclusive economic zones.|
- Interactive map at MarineRegions.org, showing boundaries and disputes
- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – Part V
- Sea Around Us Project – View the EEZ of all countries (note that this website does not distinguish between the territorial seas and the EEZs, therefore it tends to understate the EEZ areas)
- The USA zone since 1977
- GIS data: VLIZ.be
- Foreign Military Activities in Asian EEZs: Conflict Ahead? by Mark J. Valencia (May 2011)
- EEZ Management