Al-Mufawwid

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Al-Mufawwid
المفوض إلى الله
Tulunid dinar AH 276.jpg
Gold dinar struck in Tulunid Egypt under Khumarawayh, bearing the names of the Caliph Al-Mu'tamid and his heir Al-Mufawwid
Heir apparent of Abbasid Caliphate
(Abbasid Prince)
Tenure875 - 30 April 892
Bornunknown date
Samarra Abbasid Caliphate now Iraq
Diedunknown date
Abbasid Empire
Burial
Iraq
Spouseunknown
RelativesAl-Muntasir (uncle)
Al-Mu'tazz (uncle)
Al-Muwaffaq (uncle)
Al-Mu'tadid (cousin)
Full name
Ja'far al-Mufawwid ibn Al-Mu'tamid ibn Al-Mutawakkil ibn Al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun al-Rashid
Regnal name
Al-Mufawwid ila-llah (Arabic: المفوض إلى الله)
DynastyAbbasid
FatherAl-Mu'tamid
Motherunknown
ReligionSunni Islam

Ja'far ibn al-Mu'tamid, better known by his regnal name of al-Mufawwid ila-llah (Arabic: المفوض إلى الله‎, "Deferring to God"), was a son of the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tamid and heir-apparent of the Caliphate from 875 until his sidelining by his cousin al-Mu'tadid in 891.

Life[edit]

Family tree of the Abbasid dynasty in the middle and late 9th century

Ja'far ibn al-Mu'tamid is first mentioned on al-Tabari's history in 872.[1] On 20 July 875, al-Mu'tamid formally arranged for the governance of the state and his succession: Ja'far, given the honorific name al-Mufawwid ila-llah, was named heir-apparent and assigned the western half of the Caliphate, while al-Mu'tamid's brother, Abu Ahmad, known as al-Muwaffaq, received the eastern provinces and was named second heir, except for the event that the Caliph died while al-Mufawwid was still a minor. Al-Mufawwid was thus responsible for Ifriqiya, Egypt, Syria, the Jazira and Mosul, Armenia, Mihrajanqadhaq and Hulwan, with Musa ibn Bugha as his deputy.[2][3] Nevertheless, it was al-Muwaffaq who held the actual power in the state, and this division of authority seems to have been mostly on paper; according to Hugh N. Kennedy, "it does not seem that al-Mufawwid exercised any real authority".[3]

When al-Mu'tamid left Samarra in March 876 to lead the army south to confront the Saffarid army in what would be the Battle of Dayr al-'Aqul, al-Mufawwid was left behind to supervise the capital, with the aid of Muhammad al-Muwallad.[4] In 882/3, when al-Mufawwaq and the powerful autonomous governor of Egypt, Ibn Tulun, fell out and open conflict broke out among them, al-Muwaffad was obliged to publicly curse and deprive his nominal subordinate Ibn Tulun of his offices, which went to the governor of Mosul, Ishaq ibn Kundaj.[3][5] In the event, however, Ibn Tulun prevailed over the Abbasid attacks and remained in charge of Egypt, as did his son Khumarawayh after him.[6]

In April 891, while al-Muwaffaq lay dying, an attempt was made to prevent the succession to the regency of his son, Abu'l-Abbas. Al-Muwaffaq had imprisoned his son for an unknown reason, and the governor of Baghdad tried to ensure that he would not be released, and secretly brought both the Caliph and al-Mufawwid into the city to capitalize on al-Muwaffaq's imminent death. The attempt failed due to the support Abu'l-Abbas enjoyed both among the populace and the army: Abu'l-Abbas was released by the troops, the governor's house was ransacked by the mob, and on 4 June, two days after al-Mufawwaq's death, the oath of allegiance was renewed, including Abu'l-Abbas, now under the title al-Mu'tadid bi-llah, as second heir after al-Mufawwid.[7][3] Finally, on 30 April 892, al-Muwaffad was removed from the succession altogether,[8] and when al-Mu'tamid died in October, he was succeeded by al-Mu'tadid.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Waines 1992, p. 148.
  2. ^ Waines 1992, pp. 166–167.
  3. ^ a b c d e Kennedy 1993, pp. 765–766.
  4. ^ Waines 1992, pp. 169ff..
  5. ^ Fields 1987, pp. 97–98.
  6. ^ Bonner 2010, pp. 322, 323, 335.
  7. ^ Fields 1987, p. 176.
  8. ^ Fields 1987, pp. 166–169.

Sources[edit]

  • Bonner, Michael (2010). "The waning of empire, 861–945". In Robinson, Chase F. (ed.). The New Cambridge History of Islam, Volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 305–359. ISBN 978-0-521-83823-8.